Imaging of glacier structures at high-resolution using source localization and ground motion amplitude with a dense seismic array
Dense seismic array monitoring combined with advanced processing can help retrieve and locate a variety of seismic sources with unprecedented resolution and spatial coverage. We present a methodology that goes beyond classical localization algorithms through gathering various types of sources (impulsive or continuous) using a single scheme based on a gradient-descent optimization and evaluating different levels of phase coherence. We apply our methodology on an Alpine glacier and demonstrate that we can retrieve the dynamics of active crevasses with a metric resolution using sources associated with high phase coherence; the presence of diffracting materials (e.g., rocks) trapped in transverse crevasses using sources with moderate phase coherence; and the two-dimensional time evolution of the subglacial hydrology system using sources with low phase coherence. Our study highlights the strength of using an appropriate and data-driven seismological approach to image a wide range of subsurface structures and phenomena in settings with complex wavefields.